Maternal Mortality in Brazil, 1990 to 2019: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Data de publicação



Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical


Introduction – Maternal death continues to be one of the most challenging public health problems that needs to be addressed in low and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to describe the problem of maternal death in Brazil, using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD).

Methods – This study used data from the GBD 2019 to show the numbers of deaths and the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) – number of deaths/100,000 live births – in Brazil and its 27 Federated Units (FU), for ages 10 to 54 years, from 1990 to 2019. The annual variation of the MMR was estimated in 1990, 2010, and 2019. The MMR were shown for specific causes as well as for five-year age groups. The estimates were presented with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI).

Results – The number of maternal deaths, as well as the MMR showed a 49% reduction from 1990 to 2019. This reduction occurred heterogeneously throughout the country, and the profile of the MMR for specific causes changed between 1990 and 2019: from hypertensive gestation diseases, to indirect maternal deaths, followed by hypertensive gestation diseases. In the extreme age groups, the MMR is higher, with mortality increasing exponentially in direct proportion with age.

Conclusions – Maternal deaths in Brazil have decreased substantially since 1990; however, the numbers still fall short of what was established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Indirect causes are the greatest problem in more than 60% of the FU, especially for hypertensive pregnancy diseases.



Vínculo institucional



Lisiane Freitas Leal

McGill University, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Deborah Carvalho Malta

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Enfermagem, Departamento de Enfermagem Materno-Infantil e Saúde Pública, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Maria de Fatima Marinho Souza

Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Departamento de Análise da Situação de Saúde, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos

Universidade de Brasília – Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Departamento de Estatística, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Renato Azeredo Teixeira

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Faculdade de Medicina, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Pública, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Guilherme Augusto Veloso

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Estatística, Programa de Pós-graduação em Estatística, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Sônia Lansky

Secretaria Municipal de Saúde Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França

Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Mohsen Naghavi

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, United States of America.